Friday, January 24, 2020

Changing Gender Roles - The Battle of the Sexes Continues Essay

It is the war of all wars. It’s lasted longer than all the ancient wars, the world wars, and the civil wars of all nations put together. The battle lines have been clearly drawn and the two sides have never rested while on the battlefield. It is the famed â€Å"battle of the sexes† and it is anything but resolved. The war has been happening for a long time, but now it seems to have hit a point where the world wonders what to do now. This is due to the current changes in gender roles which are manipulating society and changing relationships. These changes are both negative and positive; many advances have been made with women finding equality with men, but have traditional values been underestimated? It is a highly controversial and complicated subject that affects virtually all members of society. In order to understand some of the opinions on the topic of gender roles and relationships, it is necessary to understand the definitions of some words as they will be used in this essay. First there are many definitions for the term â€Å"gender.† However, in this paper the words sex and gender will be used interchangeably and refer simply to male and female. Also important to note is that while society has more options than a male and female relationship, the emphasis in this essay is only on heterosexual relationships and the way they are perceived in society. By keeping these basic definitions and ideas in mind, one can understand that the word â€Å"role† refers to the individual’s place in society and position within a relationship. Along with this, the â€Å"traditional roles† would be defined as women being the homemakers while men being the main breadwinners. When labeling traditional roles dealing with dating and rel... ...ana. â€Å"Dating Among College Student Is All But Dead, Survey Finds.† The Chronicle of Higher Education Aug. 10, 2001: 51. Academic Universe. Lexis Nexis. EBSCO Publishing. Colorado State University Lib. Apr. 2003> Piper, John. What’s the Difference? Manhood and Womanhood Defined According to the Bible. Wheaton: Crossway Books, 1991. Wentworth, Diane Keyser. â€Å"The Role of Househusband and Housewife as Perceived by a College Population.† The Journal of Psychology 2001 (135): 639-650. Academic Search Premeir. EBSCO Publishing. Colorado State University Lib. Mar. 2003> William, Armstrong. â€Å"Colliding Bodies.† The Washington Times Aug. 11, 2001. Academic Universe. Lexis Nexis. EBSCO Publishing. Colorado State University Lib. Mar. 2003>

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Writing Proficiency

Abstract The present study investigated the sentence-level errors of freshmen students at three proficiency levels and the aspects of writing that raters focused on while rating the essays. It views errors as valuable information for the following: For teachers, as it clues them on students’ progress; for researchers as it gives them valuable data as to how language is acquired or learned; for learners, as it enables them to reflect on their learning.The data for the present study is based on the data collected for a previous study. One hundred fifty essays written by freshmen college students on their first week of classes in five private schools in Metro Manila (30 for each participating school) were collected, word-processed, and subjected to rating and coding or errors. Most of the findings of the present study corroborate the findings of previous studies on error analysis and essay evaluation—that sentence-level errors have a significant role in essay scores.The ra ters still have the grammar accuracy model when checking essays, although it is just considered secondary to other aspects of writing such as the ability to address the prompt and organize the ideas logically. Introduction Areas of Writing Research Writing teachers and researchers have always set their teaching and research lenses on the variables that describe successful second language writing vis-a-vis unsuccessful writing.Because of this preoccupation, a plethora of research has been undertaken as regards the role of L1 in L2 Writing (Cumming, 1990; Krapels, 1991), L2 writers’ characteristics and proficiency (Hirose & Sasaki, 1994; Victori, 1999; Deane et al, 2008), L2 writing process/strategies (Arndt, 1987; Becker, 2003), L2 writing feedback/evaluation (Ferris, 1995, 1997, 2002, 2003; Goldstein, 2001, 2005) L2 writing instruction (Zhang & Zhou, 2002; Liu, 2003; Chen, 2005; Coombe & Barlow, 2004) and L2 writer’s texts (Zhang, 1997; Hinkel, 1997; Hirose, 2003).In t he analysis of L2 writers’ texts, researchers focus on the rhetorical and linguistic features that impact essay scores in different linguistic backgrounds (Becker, 2010; Gustilo, 2011). These studies are significant in that they help us in understanding the complex factors that underlie proficient and less proficient writing. Emphasis on Essay Evaluation In assessing essays, what do raters consider as more proficient and less proficient writing? Studies have established that factors such as content, rhetorical strategy or linguistic (grammar, spelling, vocabulary) and non-linguistic features (organization, style, content, etc. can separate less proficient and more proficient writing. These factors, however, are weighed differently by raters depending on their background and experience (Kobayashi, n. d. ; Weltig, n. d. , Cumming et al. , 2002). According to Weltig, ESL (English as second language), EFL (English as foreign language), and ENL (English as native language) raters weigh the aspects of writing differently. On the one hand, the ENL raters put more thrust on the non-language aspects (grammar and mechanics) and consider language-related issues as secondary in judging essays.On the other, ESL and EFL raters focus more on language erro Error Analysis As a corollary to this emphasis on essay evaluation, there is no wonder why almost inextricable in the analysis of L2 texts is the focus on errors that learners make in relation to their writing performance (Sarfraz, 2011; Sattayatham & Honsa, 2007; Kitao & Kitao, 2000). Previous studies have indicated that errors do significantly affect raters’ evaluation of the overall quality of essays. For instance, Sweedler-Brown (1993) attributed the low scores of L2 essays for the original than for the corrected essays to sentence-level errors.Kobayashi and Rinnert (1993) found that the same essays gained higher overall holistic scores when the errors were corrected. Kobayashi (n. d. ) also found that lan guage use errors and coherence breaks influenced the English teachers’ (both native speaker and Japanese teachers) judgment in terms of content and clarity but not the Japanese university students’ judgments. The error-free essays were praised as very good, but the error-laden essays were penalized with low scores. Terms and Definitions of Errors Making errors is one of the most unavoidable things in the orld. In language acquisition, learning, and teaching, error has been referred to and has been defined in many ways. Catalan (n. d. ) reviewed the terms and definitions of error in Error Studies and consolidated these definitions using the communicative event framework (addresser; addressee; code, norm, and message; and setting). From the perspective of norm or well-formedness of a sentence, error is regarded as â€Å"an infringement or deviation of the code of the formal system of communication through which the message is conveyed† (Catalan, n. . p. 66). Dulay , Burt, and Krashen (1982 p. 139 as cited in Catalan ) corroborates this definition by saying that error is the â€Å"flawed side of learner speech or writing that deviates from selected norm of mature language performance† (p. 7). Errors are alterations of the rules of the accepted norm and are termed as surface errors which may be further classified as omission errors, addition errors, misformation errors, wrong order, spelling error, systems error, and the like.Also the terms overt and covert errors (Corder, 1973, Faerch, 1984, & Medges, 1989 as cited in Catalan, n. d. ) may be added in the list. The former refers to errors that are not observable within the surface but implied in the message, and the latter refers to those that are clearly identifiable in the surface (Catalan n. d. , p. 8). Benefits of Error Analysis Error Analysis (EA) is concerned with the analyses of the errors made by L2 learners by comparing the learners’ acquired norms with the target languag e norms and explaining the identified errors ( James, 1998).Stephen Pit Corder’s (1967) seminal work â€Å"The Significance of Learner’s Errors† has given EA a significant turn in that it views errors as valuable information for three beneficiaries: for teachers, it clues them on the progress of the students; for researchers, it provides evidence as to how language is acquired or learned; for learners themselves, it gives them resources in order to learn (Corder, 1967 as cited in Maicusi, Maicusi, & Lopez, 2000, p. 170).With this approach errors are regarded as resources for learning and teaching rather than as â€Å"flaws† which connote failure in the acquisition process and ,therefore, needs to be eradicated. Despite the criticisms against EA such as complete reliance on errors per se and not seeing the whole picture of the learners’ linguistic behaviour by looking also at the nonerrors (Gass & Selinker, 1994; Maicusi, Maicusi, & Lopez, 2000), EA has contributed comprehensively to Second Language Acquisition Theory and second language writing instruction. Aim of the Study The present study aims at investigating the sentence-level rrors of freshmen students at three proficiency levels and the aspects of writing that raters focus on while rating the essays. Specifically, the present study aims at providing answers to the following research questions: 1. Do writers with higher levels of writing proficiency commit the same errors that low proficiency writers do? 2. Are there significant differences in the frequency of errors committed by low, mid, and high proficient writers? 3. Which of these errors significantly decrease essay scores? 4. What aspects of writing that affect essay scores did the raters focus on while rating the essays?Method The Essays The data for the present study is based on the data collected for a previous study. One hundred fifty essays written by freshmen college students on their first week of classes i n five private schools in Metro Manila (30 for each participating school) were collected, wordprocessed, and subjected to rating and coding or errors. Rating Three independent raters who are trained ESL teachers rated the essays using a holistic scale patterned after the TOEFL writing section and SAT scoring guides (Gustilo, 2011). Kendall’s Tau coefficient of concordance (. 71, p

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Effects of Domestic Violence Essay - 533 Words

Thousands of homes have been breached by domestic violence, separating many families over the past years. The confrontational battle between spouses, former spouses, and children has been a hot topic to major media sources. Thousands of women are beaten by their husbands every year, and reports aren’t nearly as close to the incidents that occur. A lot of people wonder what the definite reason is for household abuse. Blog sites have argued the fact of this blazing topic for years, and it continues to boil in the pots towards the future. Domestic violence has been a serious case of dramatization in family households; the cause of this epic battle is arguable, and researchers are still looking for a reasonable conclusion. Studies show how†¦show more content†¦Jealousy has separated couples for centuries and impacts domestic violence. Men are typically jealous to a certain extent. Not being secure of a woman’s habits will lead to jealousy, sometimes causing a viole nt incident. Checking up on where she’s been and with who too often will lead to an argument as well. Men don’t realize that they are committing a horrible crime, but love comes into play and women don’t think of it as harmful. Men start to degrade women, and isolate them to control their lives and gain power. In most domestic violent cases, whatever hurts a mother usually hurts their children as well. Usually children are young when they see their mother being abused. Being a child, they can only prevent so much, creating a feeling of guilt. When a child sees their mother being abused, the child may feel emotionally weakened. Thinking it was okay to see their loved ones beaten can potentially play part in their relationships during the future. That would only create several more domestic violence cases. This violence that children notice also leads to runaways and suicide attempts. At crucial times in their young lives, they cant withstand the emotional stress. Drug usage cause people to go outside of their mind, and also leads to physical abuse in many domestic violence cases. Many men who physically damage their loved ones have been reported under the influence. When drugs are involved in a relationship, thingsShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Violence On Domestic Violence1380 Words   |  6 Pagesobject to violence, because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent†, quoted by Mahatma Gandhi. Violence is defined as an unjust or unwarranted exertion of power or force to intentionally injure, damage, or destroy something or someone. Amongst the various types of violence, there is one in particular that has been causing an ongoing debate within societies across the world; this certain type of violence is known as domestic violence. Domestic violence, alsoRead MoreThe Effects of Domestic Violence1831 Words   |  7 PagesDomestic Violence What effects does domestic violence have on the victim and their families? Domestic violence has a tremendous effect on people lives. It is a terrible crime and is happening each day. It is said that every 9 seconds a women is assaulted or beaten. Domestic violence is the leading cause of injury in women. This crime is very common and happens to people that you may even know. â€Å"Domestic violence is a pattern of abusive and threatening behaviors that may include physical, emotionalRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects879 Words   |  4 PagesDomestic violence is a violent confrontation between family or household members involving physical harm, sexual assault, or fear of physical harm. (Berry, 1998) Often when we think of domestic violence, we think of a man hitting women but there are many forms of abuse; emotional, sexual, physical and verbal abuse. Domestic violence acts can be committed by men or women, against children or adults. In our society, we are seeing more instances of domestic violence from professional athletes, toRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects971 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Domestic violence can happen to anyone, regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender.†(Domestic Violence. U.S.) While signs of physical abuse can be seen if the victim has visible bruises, there are other forms of dom estic violence that are often missed or overlooked. Victims often live in fear and sadly many times, they fear the person they love the most. It has been proven that at least three women are killed a day by their significant other due to domestic violence, in mostRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects913 Words   |  4 Pagesbehaviors then you have been in an abusive relationship or if you know someone who is in that type of relationship that person might the abuser or the victim. Domestic Violence is a violent confrontation between family members, a partner (boyfriend- girlfriend, spouses) involving physical harm, sexual assault, or fear of physical harm. Domestic Violence is not always physical like everyone think, it is also emotional, economically and coercion and threats. Many people think that when they are been beatingRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects3294 Words   |  14 PagesExecutive Summary As many people know, domestic violence is a criminal act involving victims and offenders who are related to one another. Domestic Violence includes intimidation and simple, aggravated, and sexual assault. What most people may not be aware of is that domestic violence has become a national dilemma, with a crime of this type occurring every 9 seconds. Family members try to ignore what’s happening and neighbors do not want to get involved. The victim is usually helpless to understandRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects2364 Words   |  10 PagesWhat you imagined was domestic violence. The violent and extremely aggressive behavior displayed in your own home. The very place that should be your sanctuary, is turned into hell. According to the NCADV: Domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior as part of a systematic pattern of power and control perpetrated by one intimate partner against another. It includes physical violence, sexual violence, threats, and emotionalRead MoreThe Effects Of Domestic Violence On Domestic Abuse1340 Words   |  6 Pagesunderestimated, domestic abuse rips families apart every single day. Domestic violence comes in mainly five different forms, physical, sexual, psychological, emotional, and economic. This violence ruins families, demoralizes the victims, and the public downplays the household terrorism that goes on every day. Generally thought of as taboo, the public belittles and humorizes domestic abuse as a way to deal with it, that avoidance must come to an end. The five forms of domestic violence are economicRead MoreThe Effects Of Violence On Domestic Violence995 Words   |  4 PagesIn many cases of gender violence there is a physical outburst or unwanted exertion of force. Perhaps the most salient issue which is evident through-out history as a root cause to domestic violence is poverty. Women who are unemployed and become an economic burden to their spouses, who become victims of domestic violence. The individuals in Domestic abuse situations, is battered and abuse by an intimate partner or family member. Domestic violence spreads across social class or race, it can happenRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects1023 Words   |  5 PagesDomestic Violence is an outline of behaviors used to create authority and control over another person through fear and pressure, frequently including the threat or use of violence. There are diverse forms of domestic violence that affect men, women and children. This mistreatment happens in various forms that include physical, emotional and mental. This abuse begins as threats, then they worsen to verbal abuse and then it ends in physical violence. You may think that the physical abuse and injuries