Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Strengths-Based Leadership in the Nursing Field Introduction As children, many of us were taught that we could be anything we wanted to be with enough hard work, determination and believing in ourselves. According to Rath (2007), we cannot be anything we want to be, however, we can be a lot more of who we already are. Strengths Finder 2.0 focuses on finding specific talents an individual possesses, so they can then develop them into strengths. Donald O. Clifton created a database containing 34 of the most common talents based on a 40-year study of human strengths. The Clifton StrengthsFinder was created and then evolved into Strengths Finder 2.0. This book focuses on talents because talents are more likely to be consistent through the lifetime; nevertheless, knowledge, skills, and practice also play important roles in personal strengths (Rath, 2007). These talents are then evolved into strengths. After taking the short Strengths Finder 2.0 test my recognized strengths included, in order of highest to lowest, achiever, learner, responsibility, harmony and consistency. This paper will focus on my top three strengths, achiever, learner and responsibility and how these play into my personal life, nursing practice and how finding my strengths can lead to personal growth. Definitions The first of my strengths is the achiever and according to Rath (2007), achiever describes a constant need for accomplishment, an internal fire pushes you to do more, no matter how small theShow MoreRelatedStrengths And Weaknesses Of The Nursing Field1619 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStrengths-Based Leadership in the Nursing Field Introduction As children, many of us were taught that we could be anything we wanted to be with enough hard work, determination, and believing in ourselves. According to Rath (2007), we cannot be anything we want to be, however, we can be a lot more of who we already are. Strengths Finder 2.0 focuses on finding specific talents an individual possesses, so they can then develop them into strengths. Donald O. Clifton created a database containing 34Read MoreStrengths And Weaknesses Of The Nursing Field1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStrengths-Based Leadership in the Nursing Field Strengths-based leadership will be the focus of this paper. It will provide definitions, history and background of StrengtsFinder 2.0, and major concepts of strengths-based leadership. Functions in the nursing practice and how strengths-based nursing can be applied to nursing roles will be addressed as well. This paper will focus on my top three strengths, achiever, learner, and responsibility and how these specifically play into my personal life,Read MoreThe Challenging Task of Leadership in the Nursing Profession1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNursing Leadership: Leadership is generally a challenging task across various work settings including the nursing profession. Actually, being a nurse leader is challenging when examining issues and situations that are unique to the healthcare sector. The complexity of leadership in nursing is attributed to the fact that nurse leaders are not only responsible for issues that are specific to their respective department but also mandated with the task of coordinating interactions between departmentsRead MoreThe Career Development Of Nurses Essay943 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestheory. Patricia Benner, R.N., Ph.D., FAAN, FRCN, has been published many times and is most famous for her book From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Nursing Practice. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s a professor in the Department of Physiological Nursing at the University of California in San Francisco and was inducted into the American Academy of Nursing in 1985. She has received many awards and honors including the National League for NursingÃ¢â ¬â¢s Linda Richards Award and many others. Her years of experience andRead MoreBenners Theory in Nursing1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPatricia Benner, a well-known nursing theorist who published From Novice to Expert, theorizes how a nurse should progress through their career. BennerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory explains what stage of nursing one is in based on your education and the amount of time one has worked in a specific nursing field. She describes the five stages of the theory: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. While this theory has its limitations, it is beneficial to the well-being of both the nurse and patientRead MoreEssay on Combining Nursing Leadership with Advocacy1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCombining Nursing Leadership with Advocacy Grand Canyon University Trends and Issues in Health Care NRS-440V June Helbig July 18, 2013 Combining Nursing Leadership with Advocacy According to Dictionary.com, a strength is the quality or state of being strong, a mental power, force, or vigor; a weakness is the lack of strength, an inadequate quality. We all have and carry our own strengths and weaknesses of qualities. As IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned in class this week, every nurse can be a leader. It wasRead MoreThe Medical Field And Working As A Nurse962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof wanting to be in the medical field and working as a nurse. It was while helping care for my grandmother, who at that time had liver cancer, was when I first realized that I had a passion to treat and care for people. Whether this meant to start pursuing my passion now or later, nevertheless, it was going to get done. Fortunately, I was able to start college right out of high school and begin taking science courses, which served as pre-requisites for the nursing program. Upon completion of theseRead MorePersonal Assessment of Strengths and Weaknesses1851 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescivilization. B eing able to care and nurture individuals is very important, as they can make contribution to society. It is for this reason that I would like to pursue a career in higher education in regards to the nursing profession. Assessment of strengths and weaknesses Personally, strengths and weakness will vary throughout my professional career. In particularly, developing a commitment to life long learning will help mitigate or abate many of the negative influences that may occur as a health careRead MoreThe Professional Career Goal Of A Health Care Administrator1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdiscussion is the chosen professional career goal of a Health Care Administrator in a Clinic in the Otolaryngology or Gynecology department, Administrator in a nursing home or hospital Emergency Room. I will speak on the health care career plan in the chosen health care sector, professional goals, and current acquired skills in the health care field, the skill that will need to be altered or changed. I will discuss the plan to achieving those professional goals, the professional organizations that canRead MoreDevelopment Of A Transformational Leader1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDeveloping Transformational Leaders in Nursing In order to develop strong leaders throughout the nursing industry, one must encompass various traits from all types of leadership theories. Of the many different theories, transformational leadership has a heavy impact in creating a strong and successful leader. Strengths Finder 2.0 guides individuals into focusing on developing themselves through their strengths instead of trying to fix their weaknesses. In doing so, individuals are able to develop
Sunday, December 22, 2019
* Alcatraz Informative Speech Outline General Purpose: To inform the class Specific Purpose: To describe to the audience a brief history of Alcatraz. Thesis: Alcatraz has been a popular social topic because of the mystery that surrounds it and the stories exaggerated in movies and television shows. INTRODUCTION I. If you disobey the rules of society, they send you to prison; if you disobey the rules of the prison, they send you to Alcatraz. II. Alcatraz has been a popular social topic because of the mystery that surrounds it and the stories of mistreatment and escape attempts exaggerated in movies and television shows. III. Alcatraz served as the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s response to post-prohibition America. Both the institutionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦At Alcatraz, there was not special treatment for any inmate, though many tried. C. As quoted in a report by the Bureau of Prisons, Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Alcatraz served an important purpose in taking the strain off the older and greatly overcrowded institutionsÃ¢â¬ ¦ since it enabled us to move the smaller, closely guarded escape artists, the big-time racketeersÃ¢â¬ ¦ and those who needed protection from other groupsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Now that you know the kind of prisoners that were sent to Alcatraz, II. I will discuss life on the island and as an inmate in the prison. A. Each prisoner received a copy of the Rules and Regulations for the GovernmentÃ¢â¬ ¦ Correctional Institutions as well as a copy of the wardenÃ¢â¬â¢s special rules that explained the daily routine of work and counts. The inmates were awakened at 6:30am to begin their day. They were required to clean up themselves and their cell and required to shave three times a week. B. Alcatraz was to be operated on the principle of very limited privileges to inmates. The privilege of visitors had to be earned, and mail privileges were limited. They each held jobs within the prison in the tailor shop, laundry, cobblers shop, model shop, gardening, or help with the food prep in the mess hall. C. Contrary to what the movies portray, there were no experiments made on the prisoners, and the inmates that were transferred there were already twisted and disturbed; Alcatraz didnÃ¢â¬â¢t turn them into monsters. There was however, a dungeon thatShow MoreRelatedInformative Speech Outline on Alcatraz Essay1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages* Alcatraz Informative Speech Outline General Purpose: To inform the class Specific Purpose: To describe to the audience a brief history of Alcatraz. Thesis: Alcatraz has been a popular social topic because of the mystery that surrounds it and the stories exaggerated in movies and television shows. INTRODUCTION I. If you disobey the rules of society, they send you to prison; if you disobey the rules of the prison, they send you to Alcatraz. II. Alcatraz has been a popular social topicRead MoreInformative Speech on Alcatraz1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesInformative Speech Outline General Purpose: To inform the class Specific Purpose: To describe to the audience a brief history of Alcatraz. Thesis: Alcatraz has been a popular social topic because of the mystery that surrounds it and the stories exaggerated in movies and television shows. INTRODUCTION I. If you disobey the rules of society, they send you to prison; if you disobey the rules of the prison, they send you to Alcatraz. II. Alcatraz has been a popular social topic because of the
Saturday, December 14, 2019
The dissipating globe of darkness found Regis once again clinging to his log, which was now little more than a black cinder, and shaking his head. Ã¢â¬Å"We are beyond ourselves,Ã¢â¬ he sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"We cannot make it through. We will write a custom essay sample on Streams of Silver 13. The Last Run or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Faith, Rumblebelly,Ã¢â¬ Bruenor comforted, sloshing through the water to join the halfling. Ã¢â¬Å"Tales we be making, for telling to our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s children, and for others to tell when weÃ¢â¬â¢re no more!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You mean today, then?Ã¢â¬ Regis snipped. Ã¢â¬Å"Or perhaps weÃ¢â¬â¢ll live this day and be no more tomorrow.Ã¢â¬ Bruenor laughed and grabbed hold of the log. Ã¢â¬Å"Not yet, me friend,Ã¢â¬ he assured Regis with an adventurous smile. Ã¢â¬Å"Not till me business is done!Ã¢â¬ Drizzt, moving to retrieve his arrows, noted how heavily Wulfgar leaned upon the wormÃ¢â¬â¢s body. From a distance, he thought that the young barbarian was simply exhausted, but when he drew near, he began to suspect something more serious. Wulfgar clearly favored one leg in his pose, as though it, or perhaps his lower back, had been injured. When Wulfgar saw the drowÃ¢â¬â¢s concerned look, he straightened stoically. Ã¢â¬Å"Let us move on,Ã¢â¬ he suggested, moving away toward Bruenor and Regis and doing his best to hide a limp. Drizzt didnÃ¢â¬â¢t question him about it. The young man was made of stuff as hard as the tundra in midwinter, and too altruistic and proud to admit an injury when nothing could be gained by the admission. His friends couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop to wait for him to heal, and they certainly couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t carry him, so he would grimace away the pain and plod on. But Wulfgar truly was injured. When he splashed into the water after his fall from the tree, he had wickedly twisted his back. In the heat of the battle, his adrenaline pumping, he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t felt the wrenching pain. But now each step came hard. Drizzt saw it as clearly as he saw the despair upon RegisÃ¢â¬â¢s normally cheerful face, and as clearly as the exhaustion that kept the dwarfÃ¢â¬â¢s axe swinging low, despite BruenorÃ¢â¬â¢s optimistic boasting. He looked all about at the moors, which seemed to stretch forever in every direction, and wondered for the first time if he and his companions had indeed gone beyond themselves. Guenhwyvar hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been injured in the battle, just a bit shaken up, but Drizzt, recognizing the catÃ¢â¬â¢s limited range of movement in the bog, sent it back to its own plane. He would have liked to keep the wary panther at their point. But the water was too deep for the cat, and the only way Guenhwyvar could have kept moving would have been by springing from tree to tree. Drizzt knew it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t work; he and his friends would have to go on alone. Reaching deep within themselves to reinforce their resolve, the companions kept to their work, the drow inspecting the wormÃ¢â¬â¢s head to salvage any of the score of arrows that he had fired, knowing all too well that he would probably need them again before they saw the end of the moors, while the other three retrieved the rest of the logs and provisions. Soon after, the friends drifted through the bog with as little physical effort as they could manage, fighting every minute to keep their minds alert to the dangerous surroundings. With the heat of the day, though Ã¢â¬â the hottest one yet Ã¢â¬â and the gentle rocking of the logs on the quiet water, all but Drizzt dropped off, one by one, to sleep. The drow kept the makeshift raft moving, and remained vigilant, they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford any delay, or any lapses. Luckily, the water opened up beyond the lagoon, and there were few obstructions for Drizzt to deal with. The bog became a great blur to him after a while, his tired eyes recording little detail, just general outlines and any sudden movements in the reeds. He was a warrior, though, with lightning reflexes and uncanny discipline. The water trolls hit again, and the tiny flicker of consciousness that Drizzt DoÃ¢â¬â¢Urden had remaining summoned him back to reality in time to deny the monstersÃ¢â¬â¢ advantage of surprise. Wulfgar, and Bruenor, too, sprang from their slumber at the instant of his call, weapons in hand. Only two trolls rose to meet them this time and the three dispatched them in a few short seconds. Regis slept through the whole affair. The cool night came, mercifully dissipating the waves of heat. Bruenor made the decision to keep moving, two of them up and pushing at all times, and two of them at rest. Ã¢â¬Å"Regis cannot push,Ã¢â¬ Drizzt reasoned. Ã¢â¬Å"He is too short for the bog.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then let him sit and keep guard while I push,Ã¢â¬ Wulfgar offered stoically. Ã¢â¬Å"I need no help.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then the two of ye take the first shift,Ã¢â¬ said Bruenor. Ã¢â¬Å"RumblebellyÃ¢â¬â¢s slept the whole day away. He should be good for an hour or two!Ã¢â¬ Drizzt climbed up on the logs for the first time that day and put his head down on his pack. He did not close his eyes, though. BruenorÃ¢â¬â¢s plan of working in turns sounded fair, but impractical. In the black night, only he could guide them and keep any kind of lookout for approaching danger. More than a few times while Wulfgar and Regis took their shift, the drow lifted his head and gave the halfling some insight about their surroundings and some advice about their best direction. There would be no sleep for Drizzt again this night. He vowed to rest in the morning, but when dawn at last broke, he found the trees and reeds again hunched in around them. The anxiety of the moors itself closed upon them, as though it were a single, sentient being watching over them and plotting against their passage. The wide water actually proved of benefit to the companions. The ride on its glassy surface was easier than hiking, and despite the crouching perils, they encountered nothing hostile after their second rout of the water trolls. When their path finally returned to blackened land after days and nights of gliding, they suspected that they might have covered most of the distance to the other side of the Evermoors. Sending Regis up the tallest tree they could find, for the halfling was the only one light enough to get to the highest branches (especially since the journey had all but dissipated the roundness of his belly), their hopes were confirmed. Far on the eastern horizon, but no more than a day or two away, Regis saw trees Ã¢â¬â not the small copses of birch or the moss-covered swamp trees of the moors, but a thick forest of oak and elm. They moved forward with a renewed spring in their step, despite their exhaustion. They walked upon solid ground again, and knew that they would have to camp one more time with the hordes of wandering trolls lurking near, but they now also carried the knowledge that the ordeal of the Evermoors was almost at an end. They had no intention of letting its foul inhabitants defeat them on this last leg of the journey. Ã¢â¬Å"We should end our trek this day,Ã¢â¬ Drizzt suggested, though the sun was more than an hour from the western horizon. The drow had already sensed the gathering presence, as the trolls awakened from their daytime rest and caught the strange scents of the visitors to the moors. Ã¢â¬Å"We must pick our campsite carefully. The moors have not yet freed us of their grasp.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll lose an hour and more,Ã¢â¬ Bruenor stated, more to open up the negative side of the plan than to argue. The dwarf remembered the horrible battle at the mound all too well, and had no desire to repeat that colossal effort. Ã¢â¬Å"We shall gain the time back tomorrow,Ã¢â¬ reasoned Drizzt. Ã¢â¬Å"Our need at present is to stay alive.Ã¢â¬ Wulfgar wholly agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"The smell of the foul beasts grows stronger each step,Ã¢â¬ he said, Ã¢â¬Å"from every side. We cannot run away from them. So let us fight.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But on our own terms,Ã¢â¬ Drizzt added. Ã¢â¬Å"Over there,Ã¢â¬ Regis suggested, pointing to a heavily overgrown ridge off to their left. Ã¢â¬Å"Too open,Ã¢â¬ said Bruenor. Ã¢â¬Å"TrollsÃ¢â¬â¢d climb it as easily as we, and too many at a time for us to stop them!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not while itÃ¢â¬â¢s burning,Ã¢â¬ Regis countered with a sneaky smile, and his companions came to agree with the simple logic. They spent the rest of the daylight preparing their defenses. Wulfgar and Bruenor carried in as much dead wood as they could find, placing it in strategic lines to lengthen the diameter of the targeted area, while Regis cleared a firebreak at the top of the ridge and Drizzt kept a cautious lookout. Their defense plan was simple: let the trolls come at them, then set the entire ridge outside their camp ablaze. Drizzt alone recognized the weakness of the plan, though he had nothing better to offer. He had fought trolls before they had ever come to these moors, and he understood the stubbornness of the wretched beasts. When the flames of their ambush finally died away Ã¢â¬â long before the dawning of the new day Ã¢â¬â he and his friends would be wide open to the remaining trolls. They could only hope that the carnage of the fires would dissuade any further enemies. Wulfgar and Bruenor would have liked to do more, the memories of the mound too vivid for them to be satisfied with any defenses constructed against the moors. But when dusk came, it brought hungry eyes upon them. They joined Regis and Drizzt at the camp on top of the ridge and crouched low in anxious wait. An hour passed, seeming like ten to the friends, and the night deepened. Ã¢â¬Å"Where are they?Ã¢â¬ Bruenor demanded, his axe slapping nervously against his hand, belying uncharacteristic impatience from the veteran fighter. Ã¢â¬Å"Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t they come on?Ã¢â¬ Regis agreed, his anxiety bordering on panic. Ã¢â¬Å"Be patient and be glad,Ã¢â¬ Drizzt offered. Ã¢â¬Å"The more of the night we put behind us before we do battle, the better our chance to see the dawn. They may not have yet found us.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"More like they be gathering to rush us all at once, Bruenor said grimly. Ã¢â¬Å"That is good,Ã¢â¬ said Wulfgar, comfortably crouched and peering into the gloom. Ã¢â¬Å"Let the fire taste as much of the foul blood as it may!Ã¢â¬ Drizzt took note of the settling effect the big manÃ¢â¬â¢s strength and resolve had upon Regis and Bruenor. The dwarfÃ¢â¬â¢s axe stopped its nervous bounce and came to rest calmly at BruenorÃ¢â¬â¢s side, poised for the task ahead. Even Regis, the most reluctant warrior, took up his small mace with a snarl, his knuckles whitening under his grip. Another long hour passed. The delay did not at all ease the companionsÃ¢â¬â¢ guard. They knew that danger was very near now Ã¢â¬â they could smell the stench gathering in the mist and darkness beyond their view. Ã¢â¬Å"Strike up the torches,Ã¢â¬ Drizzt told Regis. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll bring the beasts upon us from miles around!Ã¢â¬ Bruenor argued. Ã¢â¬Å"They have found us already,Ã¢â¬ answered Drizzt, pointing down the ridge, though the trolls he saw shuffling in the darkness were beyond the limited night vision of his friends. Ã¢â¬Å"The sight of the torches may keep them back and grant us more time.Ã¢â¬ As he spoke, however, the first troll ambled up the ridge. Bruenor and Wulfgar waited in their crouch until the monster was nearly upon them, then sprang out with sudden fury, axe and warhammer leading the way in a brutal flurry of well-placed blows. The monster went down at once. Regis had one of the torches lit. He threw it to Wulfgar and the barbarian set the writhing body of the fallen troll ablaze. Two other trolls that had come to the bottom of the ridge rushed back into the mist at the sight of the hated flames. Ã¢â¬Å"Ah, ye pulled the trick too soon!Ã¢â¬ Bruenor groaned. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re naught to catch a one with the torches in plain sight!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If the torches keep them back, then the fires have served us well,Ã¢â¬ Drizzt insisted, though he knew better than to hope for such an occurrence. Suddenly, as if the very moors had spit their venom at them, a huge host of trolls lined the entire base of the ridge. They came on tentatively, not thrilled by the presence of fire. But they came on relentlessly, stalking up the hill with drooling desire. Ã¢â¬Å"Patience,Ã¢â¬ Drizzt told his companions, sensing their eagerness. Ã¢â¬Å"Keep them behind the firebreak, but let as many as will get within the rings of kindling.Ã¢â¬ Wulfgar rushed out to the edge of the ring, waving his torch menacingly. Bruenor stood back up, his last two flasks of oil in his hands, oil-soaked rags hanging from their spouts, and a wild smile across his face. Ã¢â¬Å"SeasonÃ¢â¬â¢s a bit green for burning,Ã¢â¬ he said to Drizzt with a wink. Ã¢â¬Å"Might need a little help in getting the thing going!Ã¢â¬ Trolls swarmed on the ridge all around them, the slavering horde coming on determinedly, their ranks swelling with each step. Drizzt moved first. Torch in hand, he ran to the kindling and set it burning. Wulfgar and Regis joined in right behind, putting as many fires as they could between them and the advancing trolls. Bruenor threw his torch over the first ranks of the monsters, hoping to get them in the middle of two blazes, then heaved his oil flasks into the most heavily concentrated groups. Flames leaped up into the night sky, lightening the immediate area, but deepening the blackness beyond their influence. Crowded in so tightly, the trolls could not easily turn and flee, and the fire, as if it understood this, descended upon them methodically. When one began to burn, its frenzied dance spread the light even farther down the ridge line. All across the vast moors, creatures stopped their nightly actions and took notice of the growing pillar of flame and the wind-carried shrieks of dying trolls. Huddled close at the top of the ridge, the companions found themselves nearly overcome by the great heat. But the fire peaked quickly with its feast of volatile troll flesh, and started to diminish, leaving a revulsive stench in the air and yet another blackened scar of carnage on the Evermoors. The companions readied more torches for their flight from the ridge. Many trolls stood to do battle, even after the fire, and the friends could not hope to hold their ground with the fuel of their fires consumed. At DrizztÃ¢â¬â¢s insistence, they awaited the first clear escape route down the eastern side of the ridge, and when it opened, they charged into the night, bursting through the initial groups of unsuspecting trolls with a sudden assault that scattered the monsters and left several burning. Into the night they ran, blindly rushing through mud and bramble, hoping that luck alone would keep them from being sucked in by some bottomless bog. So complete was their surprise at the ridge that for many minutes they heard no signs of pursuit. But it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take the moors long to respond. Groans and shrieks soon echoed all about them. Drizzt took the lead. Relying on his instincts as much as his vision, he swerved his friends left and right, through the areas of least apparent resistance, while keeping their course generally east. Hoping to play upon the monstersÃ¢â¬â¢ single fear, they torched anything that would burn as they passed. They encountered nothing directly as the night wore on, but the groans and sucking footsteps just yards behind them did not relent. They soon began to suspect a collective intelligence working against them, for though they were obviously outdistancing the trolls that were behind them and to their sides, more were always waiting to take up the chase. Something evil permeated the land, as though the Evermoors themselves were the true enemies. Trolls were all about, and that was the immediate danger, but even if all the trolls and other denizens of the moors were slain or driven away, the friends suspected that this would remain a foul place. Dawn broke, but it brought no relief. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve angered the moors themselves!Ã¢â¬ Bruenor cried when he realized that the chase would not end as easily this time. Ã¢â¬Å"We be finding no rest until her foul borders are behind us!Ã¢â¬ Onward they charged, seeing the lanky forms lurching out at them as they weaved their way, and those running parallel to them or right behind, grimly visible and just waiting for someone to trip up. Heavy fogs closed in on them, preventing them from holding their bearings, further evidence for their fears that the moors themselves had risen against them. Past all thinking, past all hope, they kept on, pushing themselves beyond their physical and emotional limits for lack of any alternatives. Barely conscious of his actions, Regis stumbled and went down. His torch rolled away, though he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t notice Ã¢â¬â he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even figure how to get back up, or that he was down at all! Hungry mouths descended toward him, a feast assured. The ravenous monster was foiled, though, as Wulfgar came by and scooped the halfling into his great arms. The huge barbarian slammed into the troll, knocking it aside, but held his own footing and continued past. Drizzt abandoned all tactics of finesse now, understanding the situation that was fast developing behind him. More than once he had to slow for BruenorÃ¢â¬â¢s stumbling and he doubted WulfgarÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to continue while carrying the halfling. The exhausted barbarian obviously couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hope to raise Aegis-fang to defend himself. Their only chance was straight flight to the border. A wide bog would defeat them, a box gully would entrap them, and even if no natural barriers blocked their way, they had little hope of keeping free of the trolls for much longer. Drizzt feared the difficult decision he saw forthcoming: flee to his own safety, for he alone seemed to have the possibility of escape, or stand beside his doomed friends in a battle they could not win. They continued on, and made solid progress for another hour, but time itself began to affect them. Drizzt heard Bruenor mumbling behind him, lost in some delusion of his childhood days in Mithril Hall. Wulfgar, with the unconscious halfling, ambled along behind, reciting a prayer to one of his gods, using the rhythm of his chants to keep his feet steadily pumping. Then Bruenor fell, smacked down by a troll that had veered in on them uncontested. The fateful decision came easily to Drizzt. He swung back around, scimitars ready. He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t possibly carry the stout dwarf, nor could he defeat the horde of trolls that even now closed in. Ã¢â¬Å"And so our tale ends, Bruenor Battlehammer!Ã¢â¬ he cried out. Ã¢â¬Å"In battle, as it should!Ã¢â¬ Wulfgar, dazed and gasping, did not consciously choose his next move. It was simply a reaction to the scene before him, a maneuver perpetrated by the stubborn instincts of a man who refused to surrender. He stumbled over to the fallen dwarf, who by this time had struggled back to his hands and knees, and scooped him up with his free arm. Two trolls had them trapped. Drizzt DoÃ¢â¬â¢Urden was close by, and the young barbarianÃ¢â¬â¢s heroic act inspired the drow. Seething flames danced again within his lavender eyes, and his blades whirred into their own dance of death. The two trolls reached out to claw their helpless prey, but after a single lightning pass by Drizzt, the monsters had no arms left with which to grab. Ã¢â¬Å"Run on!Ã¢â¬ Drizzt called, guarding the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s rear and spurring Wulfgar on with a constant stream of rousing words. All weariness flew from the drow in this final burst of battle lust. He leaped all about and shouted challenge to the trolls. Any that came too near found the sting of his blades. Grunting with every painful step, his eyes burning from his sweat, Wulfgar charged blindly ahead. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think about how long he could keep up the pace with his load. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think about the certain, horrible death that shadowed him on every side, and had probably cut off his route as well. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think about the wrenching pain in his injured back, or about the new sting that he keenly felt on the back of his knee. He concentrated only on putting one heavy boot in front of the other. They crunched through some brambles, swung down one rise and around another. Their hearts both leaped and fell, for before them loomed the clean forest that Regis had spied, the end of the Evermoors. But between them and the wood waited a solid line of trolls, standing three deep. The EvermoorsÃ¢â¬â¢ grasp was not so easily broken. Ã¢â¬Å"Keep on,Ã¢â¬ Drizzt said into WulfgarÃ¢â¬â¢s ear in a quiet whisper, as though he feared that the moors might be listening. Ã¢â¬Å"I have one more trick left to play.Ã¢â¬ Wulfgar saw the line before him, but even in his present state, his trust in Drizzt overruled any objections of his common sense. Heaving Bruenor and Regis into a more comfortable hold, he put his head low and roared at the beasts, crying out in frenzied rage. When he had almost reached them, with Drizzt a few steps behind, and the trolls drooling and huddled to stop his momentum, the drow played his final card. Magical flames sprouted from the barbarian. They had no power to burn, either Wulfgar or the trolls, but to the monsters, the specter of the huge, flame-enshrouded wild man bearing down upon them shot terror into their normally fearless hearts. Drizzt timed the spell perfectly, allowing the trolls only a split second to react to their imposing foe. Like water before the prow of a high-riding ship they parted, and Wulfgar, nearly overbalancing for his expectations of impact, lumbered through, Drizzt dancing at his heels. By the time the trolls regrouped to pursue, their prey was already climbing the last rise out of the Evermoors and into the forest Ã¢â¬â a wood under the protective eye of Lady Alustriel and the gallant Knights of Silver. Drizzt turned under the boughs of the first tree to watch for signs of pursuit. Heavy fog swirled back down at the moors, as though the foul land had slammed its door behind them. No trolls came through. The drow sank back against the tree, too drained to smile. How to cite Streams of Silver 13. The Last Run, Essay examples
Friday, December 6, 2019
Essay about Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare Romeo and Juilet was written by William Shakespeare in the year 1664. Breifly this play is about a boy and girl from two opposing familes fall madly in love with each other gets torn apart by their own relatives hate. The main themes in this play are romance and violence. During Shakespearen times people were very superstitious and believed that fate was pre-destined. The majority of civilians was religious in the year the play was made and belived in most curses and pleas.Throughout the play , this concept was shown as Romeo cries out that everything is linked to fate, every action, every life and death was all believed to be linked to fate. Although it was Shakespeare who was created everything in the play, speech, death, love, including Romeos character. Behind the scenes for Romeo was Shakespeare who was playing his game. So Willium Shakespeare was Romeos fate. The Prolouge was set at the beginning of the play and we were told the summary of the play. We were told the plot of the play/storyline, A pair of star-crossed lovers. This implies two fated lovers against the law.The Prolouge also mentioning Two households, both alike in dignity ,. This emphasies two waring families both high in stature. From ancient grude to new munity, this infers that both famillies with an ancient grudge, and know comming to a new problem. We are told this at the start of the play because by doing this the audience gains an idea of the story and also to capture the audiences attention. The themes that are established in The Prolouge are love, violence and hate, all these themes are used in the play, as they are used in the small summary (The Prolouge). Act 1 Scene 1 starts by two servents from the house of Capulets, Sampson and Gregory teasing each other, talking about fighting servents of the Montagues The quarrel is between our masters and us their men. This demonstrates that their eager to fight. They were also talking about raping the Montague women, Me they shall feel while I am able to stand tis known, I am a pretty peice of flesh. This shows their sense of humour and how they like to say rude jokes. Initially the atmoshere is jolly with a jokey mood, this is shown by their reference to sexual inuemos mentioned above. But the mood quickely changes when two of the Montague servents, Balthasar and Abram, entered the play and approached closer to the Capulets. Sampson and Gregorys good-natured rivalry is immediatly converted to hostility. In this act and scene we learn a fair amount of information about Benvolio, his personality and his character. Benvolio is Romeos cousin, he is a solemn, sensitive young man whose name indicates his peace making role in the play. During this act and scene, Benvolio tries to make peace with the gang fight and fails. It also reaveals that Benvolio speaks the truth, whilst slightly backing his family(Montague) up. I do but keep the peace. Put up thy sword. This shows his character and person, what he is like. Not liking to stir up trouble, being his peaceful self. Tybalt enters half way through this scene. We learn a good amount of information about him, his character and especially aggresive personality and nature. As Tybalt enters the play, we learn that he is violent and certainly not peace loving as he mentions. What, drawn, anf talk of peace? I hate the word, as I hate hell, all Montagues, and thee. This implies that Tybalt has a aggressive nature, this quote also shows how much he hates the Montagues. As he speaks slowly and cleary to the Montagues, truely expressing his feelings about them. The audience may feel like their prepare to watch a fight, as Tybalts entry builds up great tension around the audience. This scene ends when the prince of Verona appears and splits up the murderous brawl and gives them a threatning warning. If you ever disturb our streets again, your lives shall pay the forfeit of the peace. This infers on how serious, and angry the prince is, about their continued fighting in the street and even giving a death penalty as a warning to both Capulets and Montagues. The audience may start to calm down as the tension starts to drop, because of the arrival of the prince stopping the fight. Act 3 Scene 1. This scene is important as it comes half way through the play, Romeo and Juilet have been married. This is important to what is to follow. This scene plays a large majority of the play, as the audience are firstly indroduced to the main theme of violence of the play. Explore Wharton's presentation of women in the novel EssayMy very friend hath got his mortal hurt In my behalf my reputation staind With Tybalts slander. He sees that he is responsible for his death and his love for Juilet has made him less of an man. O sweet Juilet Thy beauty hath made me effeminate And in my temper softend valourss steel ! Tybalt returns and the audience want to know what Romeo will now do, take revenge. We also know that The Prince has threatened to punish with death anyone who fights. Shakespeare brought The Prince back to remind the audience the consequences that will occur. Romeo is very angry, fire-eyed fury be my conduct now and fights with Tybalt and kills him. This tells us how angry Romeo is, mentioning the word fire-eyed fury, fust as if he has fire in his eyes. The audience knows that this is disastorious for both Romeo and Juliet. He has killed Tybalt, Juliets cousin and also, faces The Princes Punishments. Shakespeare again keeps the audience interested in what will happen next. After Romeo has killed Tybalt, Shakespeare uses Benvolio to remind the audience of the danger Romeo is now in. He tells Romeo to fly away, be gone and reminds us all of what the prince will do, the prince will doom thee death If thou art taken. This infers that The Prince will execute him. Romeos language is important. His final words remind the audience of the opening Prolouge to the play that spoke of two star-crossed lovers. Yet again, after Romeo causes a brash action (killing Tybalt) he blames someone else than himself. I am fortunes fool, this infers that he feels that fate is against him, because he wanted went downhill and people had a strong fate in god at Shakesperean times. Romeo leaves and Shakespeare has now created a tension because the audience await The Prince and wonder what will become of Romeo and Juliet. When The Prince arrives, the discussion between Benvolio and The Prince is important, as it changes Romeos destiny. The prince seeks the fight starters Benvolio, who began this bloody fray. Knowing that Benvolio will always tell the truth, even though hell get his family in trouble. Lady Capulet doesnt care, I beg for justice, which thou, Prince must give, Romeo slew Tybalt; Romeo must not live. . This emphasises that she only wants Romeo to die. Also another reason why the disscussion between Benvolio and The Prince tis important , And for that offence Immediatly we do exile him hence . This implies The Princes punichment has changed, banishing Romeo instead of killing. The change wouldnt have happened if it wasnt for Benvolio. Act 5 scene 3, so far Romeo has been informed of the catastrophe of his bride Juliet. In order to avoid Juliet getting married to Paris, Juilet fakes her death for a short period of time, which occured in ant 4 scene 4. This scene Act 5 scene 3 is important beacause it is the very last scene, and the audience will be eager to await for the finale. It is also because this is the part of the play where both of the main characters (Romeo and Juliet) dies. In this last act and scene, we learn a very great deal about Romeos character. We learn that he is very irrational and could be very violent. I dont think he manages to live up to the stereotype of the Romantic, because I think Romeos mood effects his speech, and especially the way he acts. At one speech in this scene he says By heaven, I will tear thee joint by joint and strew this hungry churchyard with thy limbs. This demonstrates how violent Romeos mind could come up and heaven do. The theme of violence is so important beacause, it alternates hte storyline of the play multiple times and also changer the behavior and roles of the characters. The violence can be most memorable, because violence is exiciting, it grabs the audiences attention and it adds unpredictabililty to the play. Violence stirs up peoples emotions, causes shock, distress, and it is often unexpected. The audience like to watch contrasting characters good vs bad. I think at the end of each scene the audience would be thinking what will happen next, beacause Shakespeare makes every act and scene interesting and reminding for us.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Jesus Is Life Jesus' Life ?Do you see Him, do you see Him?!? the little boy whispered, while tugging on his father's robe. ?Shh, Simon. Patience. He will be here soon. Can you hear the crowd getting louder John asked his son. He was trying to appear calm, but his beating heart and sweating palms gave him away. He and his son were in a crowd of hundreds waiting to see Jesus of Nazareth. People were claiming that Jesus was the Messiah they had been waiting for. John was skeptical, so he thought he would go see for himself. Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem, the city of David. While this might seem ordinary to some, the circumstances leading up to were not. Mary was betrothed to marry Joseph, but before they had slept together, she found out she was pregnant. Joseph was ready to call it off quietly, when an angel of the Lord came to him saying, ? Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save His people from their sins.? (Matt. 1:20,21) Joseph then took Mary home as his wife, and they did not lay together until Jesus was born. This proves to us Jesus was born of God, not of man. He was God's son, blameless, pure, and holy. (Mt.1:18-24) Every year Jesus and His parents would travel to Jerusalem for the Passover Feast. The year when Jesus was twelve, they went as usual; however, after the Feast days. They found Him in the Temple teaching the teachers. (Luke 2:41-50) ?When His parents saw Him, they were astonished. His mother said to Him, ?Son, why have you treated us like this? Your father and I have been anxiously been searching for you.' ?Why were you searching for me?' Jesus asked. ?Didn't you know I had to be in my Father's house' (Luke 2:48,49) He then left with His parents back to Nazareth ?and was obedient to them.? (Luke 2:51b) This shows Jesus' love for His Heavenly Father, as well as His respect and obedience to His earthly parents. John the Baptist, Jesus' cousin, had been ?preaching in the desert of Judea and saying, ?Repent, for the kingdom of Heaven is near'.? (Matt 3:1b,2) He was preaching the way for Jesus and fulfilling Isaiah's prophesy, ?A voice of one calling: ?In the desert prepare the way for the Lord; make straight in the wilderness a highway for our Lord'.? (Isa. 40:3) People from all over Jerusalem were coming to be baptized by John the Baptist. Though he baptized them, he made sure all his actions pointed toward Jesus. (Matt. 3:1-12) ? I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.? (Matt. 3:11) While John was at the Jordan River baptizing, Jesus came and asked John to baptize him. ?But John tried to deter him, saying, ?I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?' Jesus replied, ?Let is be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness.' Th en John consented.? (Matt 3:14,15) After Jesus came up from the water ? A voice from heaven said, ?this is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased'.? (Matt 3:17) Jesus was setting an example for us to follow. Baptism represents our death to sin, and our new life in Christ. After his baptism, ?Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil.? (Matt. 4:1) Jesus was in the desert for forty days and nights,0 and Satan tempted him the entire time. Jesus used scripture to fight Satan, and Jesus came out the victor of the battle.(Matt. 4:1-11) Soon after his temptation, Jesus heard that John the Baptist had been put into prison, he then left Nazareth and went back up to Galilee. (Matt. 4:12-17) There he began to preach ?repent for the
Monday, November 25, 2019
MBA application essay MBA application essay The first step to writng a good MBA essay is to analyse what the MBA application essay question is asking. To do this you need to take a keen look at the keywords of the topic to arrive at the right approach. Business essay topics can ask you to: Compare and Analyze Discuss and Criticize Explain and Illustrate An MBA application essay that asks you to examine how electronic media has redefined the marketing scope of a product would require a deep analysis of the topic to be researched and written about after proper investigation. If your MBA application essay asks you to discuss an issue then you need to shortlist the main views on the subject and give reasons for and against each view. The choice is yours Sometimes an MBA application essay will allow you to choose your own topic, in which case you should write on an area in which you are an interested expert; that way you can enjoy writing an MBA application essay that gets you where you want to be. Once you arrive at the topic focus- on a central point or issue throughout your MBA application essay: Research is the key Go to the Business Studies section of your library and get a hold of key references on the topic. The time you spend reading and taking notes will add breadth and depth of knowledge to your MBA application essay. You can also access source material from a reputable site online. Include sources like: Relevant articles and case studies Access information from credible sources like the Journal of Marketing Explore sites like Questia that provide plenty of resources on a variety of business topics. Conduct interviews and surveys to obtain a deeper insight into the topic of your MBA application essay Keep a record of page numbers, the title, author, and publisher along with the date and place so that you can give a list of all the readings in a Works Sited or reference page. Make an outline plan of your essay with diagrams and bullet points that flow logically from one another Use business terminology to get to the point in the first draft of your MBA application essay-do not ramble on unnecessarily to sound contrived and clever Follow these tips for an outstanding MBA application essay. Interesting topics: Thesis Methodology American History Thesis Islamic Religion Term Paper 15 Page Term Paper Research Paper Proposal
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Nanotechnology benefits and effects in military application - Essay Example Various debates have been held by different researching groups and governments to discuss the implications of nanotechnology in future. This is because the technology has a potential of creating many materials and devices that have wide applications in fields such as energy, medicine, military, engineering, computing and electronics. In fact, the military field started early to appreciate the significance of nanotechnology and expects more from it. The field has actually spent a lot of money researching on it than any other field. Despite the good results that have emerged and still expected to emerge as a result of nanotechnology, it has raised other issues of concern which include the potential effects of nanomaterials on the global economy, the impacts of nanomaterials in the environment, its effects on health and other speculative issues (Roco, 2006). Therefore, the advocacy groups and governments have been debating whether it is possible to warrant special regulations on nanotec hnology. This essay discusses the benefits and effects of nanotechnology in military. Nanotechnology has various benefits in the military field. First, nanotechnology helps to create the uniform materials for the soldiers. The idea behind using nanotechnology to make soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s uniforms is to make them more comfortable, more lightweight and more high tech. In addition, nanoparticles can be injected on the materials used to make solderÃ¢â¬â¢s uniforms to make them more durable, and to protect the soldiers from dangerous effects like high temperatures and chemical effects. The nanoparticles put on the uniformÃ¢â¬â¢s material protect soldiers by combining together when a suspicious thing hits the armor hardening the area that is hit. This act of stiffening helps to reduce the impact of that thing that hit or stroke the armor. By lessening the impact force, the soldiers wearing the uniform are protected from the injuries they would have
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
How can organisations ensure that information held within their information systems is both secure and also used in an ethical and socially responsible manner - Essay Example n accurate and quickly gathered information regarding markets, products, customers, ideas, and other aspects concerning the business, in order to properly plan and implement their future strategies. Businesses must also keep accurate records of their past, current, and future plans in order to function in an organized manner (Martin, pg. 256, 1973). As businesses must take due care of their possessions and assets to prevent damage or theft, businesses must also protect their information from being stolen or misused. While assets may be quite expensive and valuable for the firm, information is worth much more and has a higher risk involved. Cyber crime is at large in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technologically advanced world, in which thieves do not attempt to take physical assets from people, but directly aim to access intangible information, which is regarded as more valuable. Corporations keep their information safe on computers that are locked with passwords and only staff is permitted to access the information. However, often there are instances of information leaks or access to restricted records by competitors, which causes the business immense damage. Hackers and other cyber thieves access important information to commit frauds or to manipulate the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s financial records. Many times, large amounts of cash are transferred from the business account to other accounts and they become irretrievable (Kankanhalli, Teo, Tan, & Wei, pg. 145-147, 2003). There are thousands of ways that businesses can suffer harm through the access of their personal information. Account numbers, financial information, customer records, meeting plans, and new business strategies are all recorded on computers and it is regarded as a safer place to put such information rather than in paper form where it is easily accessible to all. Unfortunately, while computers may be the safer place to put such information, saving it from ordinary people and ordinary thieves, yet it is still considerably unsafe
Monday, November 18, 2019
Educational benefits of Television on Children - Essay Example However, despite this distinction, the American Pediatric Association has nevertheless discouraged television viewing by pre-school children for more than two hours a day, and has recommended no television at all for children below two years of age. This research seeks to determine the beneficial effects of educational television programs for infants, toddlers, and young children of pre-school age, and to understand the factors that positively contribute to these benefits. Introduction Television is the most influential of the popular media (Schneider & Fisch, 2001:29). Television has the power to engage people through its entertaining programming, and has proven a powerful tool to inform, influence, and educate. This had led Boyer (1991:140) to comment: Ã¢â¬Å"Television, next to parents, is the childÃ¢â¬â¢s most influential teacher.Ã¢â¬ The problem for many is that this works both ways: considerable data proves that televisions can exert both positive and negative influence on children. There has been tremendous research that has gone to proving that television is capable of programming children to consumerism, violence and sex. Many of the ill effects of TV viewing on children are unintentional offshoots of programs intended to entertain a wider segment of the viewing audience, targeting particularly adults. However, there is a narrower market segment which intentionally focuses on commercial broadcasting for the purpose of educating young children. The most successful of these programs is Sesame Street, begun more than 30 years ago by Joan Ganz Cooney, which had been adopted in many countries worldwide. Numerous research studies have shown that children of preschool age have significantly benefitted from exposure to Sesame Street, and these beneficial effects have endured over several years (Fish & Truglio, 2000, in Schneider & Fisch, 2001). Other successful shows produced by ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Television Workshop (CTW), the producers of Sesame Street, are 3-2-1 Contact, Square One TV, and Cro. Other producers have created Bill Nye, the Science Guy; BeakmanÃ¢â¬â¢s World; and Magic School Bus (Schneider & Fisch, 2001:30). Reservations about the educational benefits for toddlers Most academic studies conducted on children targeted the 3-to-5-year-old age group, thus the educational effect of television on this age group is well documented. Very few studies have been made, however, on the below-3-year-old audience routinely exposed to educational television. Among TV shows dedicated to the 0-to-3-year-old age group are Sesame Street and Teletubbies, and the videos Baby Einstein and Baby Bach. The lack of conclusive data has spawned a debate about whether toddlers are even cognitively prepared to understand and learn from educational programs aired on television (or video recordings). According to Fisch (2004:45), the lack of readiness of toddlers to comprehend TV programs is supported by the recommendation by the American Academy o f Pediatrics (AAP) for television shows to be completely avoided for children below 2 years old.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Multi Brand Retailing And Its Policy Implications Economics Essay With the ongoing wave of globalistaion, the companies are overhauling their approach to business practices worlwide in order to address the Opportunities and Challenges presented by the Multi Polar World. Therefore they are moving from conventional business practices to more geographical flexible approach and are aligning their strategies to the external environment. It is believed that Foreign Investment is a key component in the economic growth of any developing country. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) truly act as catalyst in this context. Indian Retail Sector carry a large prospective for attracting FDI as it is expected to grow three times the current levels.i.e.660 US billion $ by 2015.Large Format Retailers have diminished the idea of Grow local and sell local. But the latest move by the Indian government to allow 51% FDI in Multi Brand Retailing has attracted a huge debate in the country. It has been argued that the reforms will result in greater benefits to the economy, cons umers and farmers but the concerns have been raised by some political parties and trade associations that the outcome would be opposite. Henry Ford, the genius inventor said, Dont find fault, find a remedy. This axiom reverberates ever so relevantly in todays Indian retail sector scenario like never before. In this context, the present paper makes a modest attempt to analyse the controversial issues concerning the influx of FDI in multi brand retailing and also highlights the challenges and threats to all the players involved in it. This paper also reviews that adequate safeguards should be build by the Indian government so that it does not end up in losing proposition. Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Retail Industry, Organised Retail Industry, Unorganised Retail Industry, Single Brand Retailing, Multi Brand Retailing, E-Retailing SECTION I: Introduction India is a land of Retail Democracy which is characterized by High level of Livelihood through Employment, High level of Self Organisation, Low Capital Input and High Level of Decentralisation. India is the fifth largest Retail Market Globally. Retail contributes approx from 14%-15% of Indias GDP.India has highest Retail Density in the World with 15 million Outlets. A T Kearney, an international management consultancy firm, has acknowledged India as one of the uppermost retail destinations. According to Technopak the Indian Retail economy is jump to mature to US$ 94.4 billion by FY12 and India has all the prospective needed to sustain this growth. According to a study conducted by PWC, Indian Retail Market currently stood at US $ 400 billion in 2009-10 which is approximate to reach US $ 573 billion by 2012-13 and is growing 30%-40% per annum.The India retail market is estimated at US$ 470 Billion in 2011, contributing for 35% of GDP and is expected to rise to US$ 675 Billion by 2016. The trend and the expected Total Retail Market and Organised Retail Market in India is exhibited in Graph 1 and Graph 2. Graph 1 Graph 2 Indian Retail Industry is divided into two sectors: Organised and Unorganised Sector. Indian retail market is highly dominated by decentralized unorganized market, which accounts for about 95% of the sales. The share of organized retailing in India, at around 2%, is too near to the ground, compared to 80% in the USA, 40% in Thailand, or 20% in China, thus leaving the huge market prospective largely intact. But, organised retail industry is one of the budding sectors with massive growth potential and with its emergence; Indian economy is surely going to gain from well capitalized retail industry. Since 1991, Due to Globalisation and Liberalisation, Retail Industry has grown exponentially in form of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Foreign Investment in India is governed by the FDI policy which is announced by the Government of India and the terms of the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) 1999, which was notified by Reserve bank of India This notification has been amended from time to time. The Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India is the nodal agency for monitoring and reviewing the FDI policy on continued basis. The FDI policy is notified through Press Notes by the Secretariat for Industrial Assistance (SIA), Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP). The foreign investors are liberated to invest in India, except few sectors where prior approval from the RBI or Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) would be obligatory. The Government of India recognizes the momentous role played by foreign direct investment in accelerating the economic growth of the country and thus started a swing of economic and financial reforms in 1991. India is now planning to initiate the second generation reforms proposed for a faster assimilation of the Indian economy with the world economy. As an outcome, India has been rapidly altering from a restrictive regime to a liberal one. Many reforms have been done by Indian Government in this context which is shown in the figure1: Figure 1 Among the emerging markets, in 2011, India is ranked as the fourth most Attractive Country for Retail Industry as per the Global Retail Development Index which is developed by A.T Kearney on the basis of 25 macroeconomic and retail specific variables. India is expected to lead one of the best retail economies by 2042s due to good talent pool, huge markets and availability of cheap raw material. Some studies have also state that variables like market size and differences in factor costs were found to be considerable in determining the FDI location as these are very important in determining the market economies and they cannot be achieved and oppressed till the time market achieves a certain size. (Markusen and Maskus, 1999). Foreign players may invest in the form of Single Brand Retailing and Multi Brand Retailing. Organized retail has become a centre of attention for most of the leading international players. Retailing through formats such as supermarkets, hypermarkets, department st ores and other forte chains are swelling. Indias consumers chiefly fit in to the middle and lower financial strata of society and both these segments would desire shopping at multi-brand retail stores which provide them an extensive assortment of price points and options in each product class. A widely held retail companies, 33.6%, cater to the customers falling in Rs 100,000 to Rs 500,000 income group, followed by 26.2% companies catering Rs 500,000 to Rs 1,000, 000 income group, both of which are emergent segments in India.As far as shopping behaviour of Indian consumers is concerned, modern outlets are preferred because they associate entertainment with shopping and now-a-days its a customer delight to go out for shopping and entertainment simultaneously (Sinha 2003). Retail stalwarts such as Wal-Mart, Tesco and Marks Spencer have already made entry into the Indian retail industry and with multi-billion dollar funds by major household players such as Reliance Retail. The US-base d worlds largest retailer Wal-Mart has already recognized its existence in the Indian market through a wholesale cash and carry stores. The company at present operates 17 wholesale cash-and- carry stores under Best Price Modern Wholesale stores in India. This industry is expected to go from strength to strength and have bright future as a number of drivers are aiding the development of the Industry such as improved levels of income and increasing purchasing power etc. In 2006,Indian government sanctioned FDI up to 51% in single brand retailing now this cap has been increased to 100%,last year in November,2011,union cabinet allowed FDI up to 51% in multi brand retailing, but this reform was put on hold as lot of opposition and protest was generated by various state governments, political parties like Trinomial congress, small shopkeepers, small traders, trading associations, industrial associations on certain grounds which has compelled Indian government to scrutinize the long term i mplications of organized retail in India. The government is geared up with the policy and the verdict has already been permitted by the cabinet it is only the matter of removing the finger from the pause button. In this backdrop the Objective of the study is: To discuss the present status and Policy Implications of FDI in Multi Brand Retailing. To Highlight the Major Controversies relating to FDI in Multi Brand Retailing in India. To Discuss the Challenges and Threats to the Foreign Retailers and Domestic Retailers. To provide various Suggestions to all the effected Players through approval of FDI in Multi Brand Retailing. To achieve the objectives of the study, the paper is divided into following sections: SECTION I, the present section gives an overview of FDI in Organised Retail in India followed by SECTION II which contains Review of Literature. SECTION III exhibits the Present Status and the policy implications of FDI in Multi Brand Retailing and also highlights the Major Controversies relating to FDI in Multi Brand Retailng.SECTION IV Highlights the views of the Indian Government and the Foreign Retailers on the Issue followed by SECTION V states the Challenges and Threats which all the Players may encounter with. SECTION VI provides some Suggestions and Recommendations on the matter and SECTION VII entails the Conclusion followed by SECTION VIII gives the details about the References used in the study. SECTION II: Review of Literature Reardon and Hopkins, 2006 Reardon and Berdegue, 2007 states that in underdeveloped countries Modern Retail arrived in Three Consecutive Waves. In the early hours of 1990s, the First Wave took place in South America, East Asia, China, North Central Europe and South Africa. The Second Wave took place in late 1990s in Mexico, Central Europe and Third Wave happened in the late 1990s and early 2000s in Africa, Central and South America, South East Asia, China India, Russia.They also state that the Third Wave Countries lagged behind due to the severe Foreign Policy on FDI in Retail Industry. China and Russia liberalized their FDI policy in 1990s and India did in early 2000s.In 2006, India sanctioned 51% in Single Brand Retail Joint Venture, but Multi Brand was still in debate at that time too.Koshy, Joseph, Partner, Joseph and Joseph law office describes in their article, FDI in Retail Sector, 2006 that Indian government has permitted FDI in several sectors but FDI in retail has been in de bate in the country as it had been opposed by many State Government and Leftist. According to Report, Corporate Hijack of Retail-Retail Dictatorship Vs Retail Democracy by Navdanya/Research foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology, the entry of Giant Corporations like Wal-Mart etc in the Indian Retail Industry will have undeviating impact on 650 million Indian farmers. A Report (Oligopoly Tnc, 2005, the ETC group) states that the main energetic forces in the Food Retail Sector are the Cut Throat Antagonism and Global Integration. If Giant Retail chains get footing in India, it will lead to disarticulation of small retailers and farmers.Dr Mandeep Singh, Associate Prof of Economics, The Earth Institute of Colombia University states in his article FDI in retailing in india, 2010, that the entry gate of FDI regime should be in phased manner as household retailers need adequate time period to adjust changes and compete with global retail giants. A publication by ICT by IANS, Thein dian.com co. ltd, 2010 reveals the view point of heads of various Giant Retailers.FDI in Multi Brand Retailing: Time to expand the Horizons by Parekh, Paresh, Mumbai Agency, DNA, 2010 states that it is necessary to differentiate the Foreign Financial Institutions and Foreign Retailers for permitting FDI as Foreign Financial Institutions bring right talent and know how along with the capital which may be more pertinent to the profitable business in the sector. It also argues that Indian organised retailers may require finance for private equity than a premeditated alliance with foreign retailers. It further predicts that it is worth debating whether to place conditions before permitting FDI like rural employment creation, mandatory investment in back end infrastructure.Mukherjee and Patel,2005 reveal in their study that FDI through organised retailing have optimistic effect on the Indian industry in form of easy access to finance and global best practise through joint ventures Joseph and N sundarrajan,2009(the Indian council for research on international economic relations,ICRIER)in their study that only 17% of small shops were shut down due to competition from organised retailing. Through adoption of better business practise and technology, domestic retailers have competed effectively in opposition to organised retail. There has been an optimistic spill over effect on the Indian economy as its possession advantages get dispersal to household enterprises, thereby enhancing their productivity. SECTION III: Present Status of FDI in Multi Brand Retailing in India and the Major Controversies relating to it and its Policy Implications. 1. Present Status and Proposal as finalised by Indian Government Indian government has opened Indian economy for global players as a part of an accord with World trade organisation (WTO) and also cheering foreign direct investment into the territory. After allowing 100% FDI in Single Brand Retailing, in 2011, UPA Government has allowed the decision of FDI in Multi Brand Retailing. The following proposal has been finalised by the government on this controversial issue: Government has legalized up to 51% of foreign direct investment (FDI) in multi brand retail trade. Fresh agricultural produce including fruits, vegetables, flowers, grains, pulses, fresh poultry, fishery, meat products etc may be unbranded. Minimum amount of US $ 100 million is to be brought in by foreign retailers. Out of the total amount brought in by foreign retailers at least 50% shall be invested in the back end infrastructure i.e. towards processing ,manufacturing ,distribution ,design improvement, quality control, packaging, logistic etc. At least 30% of manufactured or processed products shall be procured from small domestic industries by the foreign retailers which have the total investment not exceeding US $ 1 million (without providing depreciation). Retail stores shall be established only in cities with population of more than 10 lakhs as per 2011 census and shall also cover area of 10 kilometres around the municipal/urban agglomeration limits of such cities. 2. Controversies relating to FDI in Multi Brand Retailing Many Opponent political parties mainly BJP and Trinamool Congress have strongly protested against this decision. The most inopportune part is the UPA Governments validation of execution actions to be kept invulnerable from parliamentary approval. Quit FDI Day was observed on 9th august, 2012 to protest against FDI in multi brand retailing by staging dharnas. According to Praveen Khandelwal, Secretary General of Confederation of All India Traders, foreign investments by global giant retailers would lead to closure of small business and lakhs of people will be jobless. He further added that its highly undemocratic if Government will form an accord without traders assent. This issue have been encircled by number of controversies. The predicament arises whether opening up of FDI in multi-brand retail will build problems or endow with opportunities to local retailers. There is no appropriate response and apparent views have been seen in the favour and against FDI in multi-brand retailing. Some of the controversies are listed below: Figure 2 1. Do India really need foreign retailers? ACTUALITY: Indian economy is small with restricted superfluous capital and is already in force on budget deficit. India need trillions of dollars to build its infrastructure and other facilities, its simply not probable to back this expansion by domestic investors and Indian government, therefore international investment capital through FDI in obligatory. Apart from capital, Indian retail industry also call for knowledge and global amalgamation which can only be brought in by global retail leaders which can potentially unlock export markets for domestic farmers and producers. 2. Entry of Foreign Retailers in Multi Brand retailing will impact Indian Agrarian Community? 3. Entry of Giant Retailer will result in Shutting down of independent stores leading to enormous job losses, only few jobs would be created but millions will be vanished? ACTUALITY: Instead of job losses, retail reforms are likely to bring gigantic advancement in the Indian jobs as organised retail will call for workforce then millions of additional jobs will be formed during the building of and the maintence of retail stores,roads,cold storage centres, software industry and other retail supporting organisations.Walmart alone would employ 5.6 million citizens if it swell in India as much as their charisma in the USA and also if the staffing level is reserved at the same level as in the US stores. The accepted jobs in prospect Indian organised retail would total over 85 million. 4. Foreign players may practise dumping, get competition out of the way as they may become monopoly and raise prices? ACTUALITY: Since 30 years, over 350 global retail companies like Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Tesco, Coop etc with annual sales over $ 1 billion have operated in several countries. Competition between Wal-Mart like retailers has set aside food prices in check. Country like Canada credits its near to the ground inflation rates to Wal-Mart outcome. Price inflation in such countries has been 5-10 times lesser than price inflation in India. The consumer price inflation in Europe and US is less than 2% in comparison to Indias double digit Inflation.Anti- Trust Laws and State Regulations like in Indian penal code have prevented Food Monopolies all over the world. 5. Indians will work hard and foreigners will reap profits? ACTUALITY: With execution of 51% FDI limit in Multi Brand Retailing, just about half of the returns will remain in India as profits will be subject to taxes which will trim down the Budget Deficit of Indian Government. Eventually, retail companies will get returns all the way through hard work and by creating value. 6. Will Giant Retailers be able to avoid Pollution in terms of Carbon Footprints? ACTUALITY: This question has mix response as India is already reeling with managing environmental crisis. India would not be able to avoid polluting more with the advent of large scale retail chains in India and it would make even harder to meet global norms. According to a survey, the Net GHG( Green House Gas) emission of 2005 of major Retailers -Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Tesco collectively was about 20 million metric tonnes which is corresponding to the 80 most polluting countries in the world. SECTION IV: Views of the Major Players 1. What Indian Government say on FDI in Multi Brand Retailing? Inspite of lot of strong opposition on FDI in multi brand retailing, Indian government has been trying to counterfeit an accord on this extremely contentious issue, but several states still remain opposed to this idea. Till now only 10-11 Indian states and union territories like Delhi, Uttrakhand, Manipur, and Rajasthan etc have supported the centres decision to permit FDI in Multi Brand Retailing. Delhis Chief Minister, Shiela Dikshit stated that FDI in Multi Brand retailing will benefit the Indian economy in many ways. She further states that this proposal would help in improving infrastructure, reduce waste, minimize the role of middlemen, reduce food inflation, stabilize prices, improve Agro Commodities management address gaps relating to post harvest infrastructure. The Indian Government need FDI to meet its foreign exchange requirements and government also believes that only global retailers can satisfy the rising and varied demands of Indian consumers.FDI in Multi Brand Retail ing would improve the Agricultural Marketing, Revenue to the Government could also increase as large portion of Indian sector is unorganised and has low tax compliance. Profound FDI in the Multi-Brand Retail sector will upshot in gainful employment opportunities in agro-processing, sorting, marketing, logistics management and front-end retail management. In the next three years, minimum 10 million jobs will be produced in the retail sector. It will assist farmers to get prices over the MSP by omitting manipulative middlemen. MNC Retailers and Foreign Retail Giants will make certain supply chain efficiencies for incessant supply of the products. Policy to make an urge for investing minimum of $100 million and out of which at least half the amount must be invested in back-end infrastructure, including cold chains storages, refrigeration, transportation, packing, sorting and processing which would definitely help in condensing post-harvest losses and costs. A condition to acquire minim um of 30% of goods from Indian micro and small industry will promote domestic manufacturing, thereby creating a manifold outcome for employment, technology up gradation and income creation. At the World Economic Forum 2012 in Davos, Indias Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma told Wal-Mart president Doug McMillon and Metro board member Frans Muller that Indias resolution to put foreign direct investment (FDI) in multi-brand retail on hold was just a pause strained by opposition. He further stated that the government is committed to take forward the reform agenda as the Indian retail market has massive scope for growth and development but many Indian retailers face a crunch in terms of financial support and supply chain management.So foreign players can come in and help them. He also said that FDI in multi brand retailing will not only improve the quality of goods but it will also enhance competitiveness. He also made a statement that no state will be forced to put into practi ce FDI in Multi Brand retailing.Uttrakand Chief Minister Vijay Bahuguna also favoured FDI in Multi Brand retailing saying that availability of Cold Storages and Proper Marketing Facilities will reduce the damage to the Agri-Horticulture-Organic produce which would ultimately result in increase in the income of rural farmers. The Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, Mr Montek Singh Ahluwalia also totally favours opening up of the sector for FDI. Apart from Trinamool Congress the idea of FDI in multi brand retailing has been opposed by many other ministers and political parties. Minister of State for Commerce and Industry Jyotiraditya Scindia stated his view to the Rajya Sabha in written that without adequate safeguards FDI in multi-brand retail will lead to prevalent disarticulation and poor treatment of Indian workers in retail, logistics, agriculture and manufacturing. A written petition has been filed by Vandana Shiva, an NGO activist, in the Delhi High Court alleging that Bharti Wal-Mart and Bharti Retail are directly and indirectly carrying out retail trading in multi-brand in contravention of the FDI policy.BJP is also opposing entry of Foreign Direct Investment in multi-brand retail in the country on the ground that it will be an injustice to small traders.BJP leader LK Advani also said that sanctioning foreign brands to do retail trade in India is an injustice to retailers as it leave many small traders jobless.BJP P resident Nitin Gadkari stated that the countrys economic condition is in a sorry state because of UPA governments erroneous economic policies, crooked practices and visionless leadership. Former BJP National President Rajnath Singh claimed that, If FDI is introduced in retail sector; it will break the backbone of Indian economy. According to Mr Viren Shah, President of Federation of Retail Traders Welfare Association and Mr B.C. Bhartia, National Federation of All India Traders, with the Entry of Global Giant Retailers into Multi Brand Retailing, the interests of the small retailers would be compromised. 2. What Foreign Retailers say on FDI in Multi Brand Retailing? The President and CEO of Wal-Mart International, Mr Doug McMillon said at the World Economic Forums Annual Meeting that FDI in Multi Brand Retailing will not impact the fortunes of small shopkeepers. He further stated by giving an example that after 20 years of retail business in Mexico,50% of retailing in Mexico is still done informally and fear of shutting down of independent and kirana stores is overstated. He also admitted that operating in India would pose challenges due to Regulations and High Real Estate prices in India. According to the CEO of US based Discount Department FDI in Multi Brand Retailing will help address inflation concerns for consumers as well as it will benefit the farmers in India. SECTION V: Challenges and Threats to the Players Retail industry is the second largest employer in India and has remarkable growth potential and on the other hand foreign players have deeper pockets, ability and are in need to invest constantly to enlarge. In economies like china and japan,the retail industry are slowly reaching towards saturation point and many retailer are confronting increasing margin pressures.Therefore,global giant retailers are attracted towards developing economies like India which is mounting at a hasty velocity. Global retailers are interested to invest in India due to increasing urbanisation and favourable consumer base.FDI in multi brand retailing will generate employment opportunities, income, technology transfer and economic stability but still there are several factors like government regulations, lack of ample infrastructure and inadequate investments are the probable bottlenecks for retail companies. It may pose advantages as well as challenge for domestic retailer, foreign retailers and also for th e Indian government. Therefore some of the challenges and threats are listed below in this context. FDI in Multi Brand retailing may lead to large scale disarticulation of employed in retail sector due to unfair competition which may eventually result in mass departure of domestic retailers. The domestic retailers may not be able to endure in the ex-parte competition as the Indian retail sector especially organised is in an embryonic stage. The existing firms may mislay their self competitive potency if they join forces with global biggies. Any MNC going to set up a multi-brand retail store across India will have to countenance vast licensing obligations in each state of its operation which could be a major obstacle in the way of FDI in multi-brand retail, they will have to get approval for investment as well from the central regulatory authority which, at present, is the Foreign investment promotion Board (FIPB). The foreign players may encounter Red-Tapism as prior to investment approval their application has to pass through various transfer channels which is highly subjugated by bureaucrats resulting in impediment in decision making leading to disinterested corporate giants. Although there are number of anti-corruption cells and acts in India but still corruption could be a major obstacle for foreign investors. No doubt there is availability of cheap labour in India but most of them are unskilled therefore foreign investors may require to provide training and development to them to administer advance retail chains. In 2008-10, rigorous financial damage was caused to investors worldwide due to inflation but Indian economy remained modest affected because of partial open economy. But FDI in multi brand retailing would escort to persistent threats due to revolution in business cycles of global partners. Today India already has foreign debt, trade deficit and current account deficit which mean nearly all resources and transactions in India are owned or financed by Foreign Nations resulting in killing of Indian rupee due to Foreign Currency influence which can be witnessed in Rising Commodity Prices, Rising Fuel Prices and Rising Debts. FDI in retail may impact Indian small and medium Manufacturing sector which is already dented by China Products which will further them hurt. In current Inflation Stricken Economy, Indian Government need to be careful while permitting FDI in Muti-Brand Retailing as it fears to hurt the sentiments of Middlemen, Farmers and Owners of mom and pop stores. SECTION VI: Suggestions and Recommendations Being a controversial issue, no doubt Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Multi Brand Retailing is expected to transform the Indian Retail landscape in a noteworthy way. The global organised players would bring in the much needed investment that would incite the further growth of the sector which is particularly important for nourishment of some of the domestic retailers which lack requisite resources to ride out the storm during an economic slump. The technical know-how, global best practices, quality standards and cost competitiveness brought forth through FDI would portend well for the domestic players to harvest the necessary support to protract their growth. The infrastructure support would definitely help to improve the backend processes of the supply chain and enable to purge wastages and augment the operational efficiency.FDI in multi-brand retail would in no way imperil the employed in the unorganised retail sector. On the contrary, it would pilot to the conception of million s of jobs as substantial infrastructure capabilities would be needed to cater to the changing lifestyle needs of the urban Indian who is keen on allocating the disposable income. The numerous intermediaries would be restricted and the farmers would get to enjoy a bigger share of the pie. Despite of numerous advantages, this matter has been opposed by many political parties, small traders etc on certain grounds like it may have adverse impact on Agrarian Community, environmental issues, loss of jobs, creation of monopoly and so on. Political parties have opposed to this move pointing that it will be suicidal for small and marginal farmers and would affect thousands of traders in the sector.Hence, FDI in multi brand retailing is a conflicting and very sensitive matter, therefore the foreign retailers as well as the Indian government need to take rationale decision before implementing proposed reforms. So few suggestions and recommendations are listed below in this regard: The first basic step needed for reforming Indian retail sector is providing it an industry status which will not only facilitate better financial processes but also enable prudent practices. Policy clarification is required to authorize giant global players which will augment the confidence of the foreign investors and the sector should be opened for giant firms in calibrated manner. A serious revision of the labour laws is required to strengthen the retail industry. All laws should be suitably changed and reasonably modified. The government should provide a Single Window Clearance System which will rationalize license process allied with the establishment and administration of retail stores and a uniform license regim can be implemented in all the states. The government can create retail and entertainment zones (REZ) similar to SEZ and necessary exemptions like stamp duty, octroi etc could be provided to foreign retailers operating within them which will help in reducing prices. A tax incentive in the form of 100% deduction on expenditure incurred on the employment of fresh personnel and weighted deduction for payment made by retailers towards training and development to their staff in order to improve their expertise can be allowed. This will help in promoting employment in the retail sector. Government must assist in creation of farmer coopera
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
With the United States economy in a state of recession from the empty promises brought forth by President George Bush, the country needed a change for the better. President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s policies were not pulling through, and the American people were expecting results. Re-election was nearing for Bush and he really needed to get his act together if he wanted another term in office. Out of no where a former governor was leading the polls over Republican candidate, President George Bush. Clinton had focused a lot of his efforts towards the younger generation of 18 to 25 years. Bush was also behind because his programs created the present recession the nation was experiencing. Clinton spoke of new job opportunities and better wages, which appealed to the younger generation, because they were starting out in their lives and more jobs meant more options. Many people felt as though they were being betrayed by Bush, because of his empty "No New Taxes" policy. Another factor that swayed votes ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s way, was the change in ideas of the "Reagan Democrats", who were registered Democrats which voted Republican. These voters realized that Bush was not following through with his promises and they wanted results. Families were being hurt because of unemployment and the "Reagan Democrats" needed to provide for their families. One major issue was the cultural conflict of welfare. Americans were becoming lazy and did not "need" jobs as long as they were on welfare. Bush just let this issue go, while Clinton made a plan stating that after two years of welfare, everyone capable of working would have to accept a job, or training for a job. This policy attracted voters of the working and middle class population. This policy also showed that the Democratic Party is a party of workers and doers as opposed to slackers. It says they will protect the workers of America. Because of all of these factors, Clinton has an astonishing lead over his opposing mate. This lead continues on and leads Clinton onto his election and the re-election. Clinton is a very well-liked president, as well as effective. Employment was steadily on the rise, and the inflation rate was lower than it had been in many years. Clinton was able to negotiate foreign policy, he was able to handle domestic affairs and he was liked by the people. He also looked good on camera which was another asset he had in his favor. Bill ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s approval rating was very high and he was controlling the country with dignity and competence. The unthinkable then happened, he was caught having an affair with a White House intern, Monica Lewinski. This scandal plagued the White House for many months. Clinton was even put on trial, accused of perjury.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Social Inventions of groups of people working to achieve their goals 2. Goal Accomplishment- Individual assembled to achieve goals that cannot be done by one man alone 3. Group EffortÃ¢â¬â By combining as a team, they can thus work efficiently to achieve goals What is Organizational Behavior? Attitudes and behaviors of individual and group in organizations. Involves systematic study of these attitudes and behaviors, and should be of interest to all students of management Why study ABHOR? 1. It is interesting 2. It Is Important as It helps us be more efficient .Makes a difference because good companies are the one practicing It ABHOR goals 1. Predicting People's Behavior Ã¢â¬â Predicting what people wants to do in work life 2. Explaining Behavior- Explain why people work in different way 3. Managing it- The art of getting things accomplished via others. If It can be predicted, It can be managed Early Prescription 2 phases to pursue correct way to manage organization 1. Sass, man agers believe high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, centralized decision making to solve issue (Classical View- Authoritative) 2.Hawthorne Studies ?Human relations movement was critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs (Participative) Contingency Approach This approach recognize there Is no best method depends on situation- No best method What Managers do? 1. Managerial Roles vary with management level and organizational technology 2. Interpersonal Roles- Roles that are used to establish and maintain interpersonal relations. Figurehead roles and spokesperson roles 3. Decisional Roles- Makes decision and the negotiator roleManagerial Activities 1. Routine communications (Exchange Info, handle paperwork with people) 2. Traditional Management (Planning, Decision Making) 3. Networking (Socializing, politicking) 4. Human Resource Management (Managing Conflict, Staffing, training and development) One of the most fascinating findings is how emphasis on these various activities relates to management success. People who promote faster tends to do more networking and less human resource management. However, if success is successful managers are those who devote more time and effort to human resource management and less networking.Managerial Agendas Successful Managers has similar patterns via Ã¢â¬â Agenda Setting, Networking and Agenda 1 . Agenda Setting- Managers tend to develop agendas of what they want to accomplish for organization. Usually Informal unwritten, more concerned with Ã¢â¬Ëpeople issues' and less numerical than most formal strategic plans 2. Networking- Managers established wide formal and informal network of key people inside and outside of organization to ensure cooperation inside and outside. 3. Agenda implementation- Managers use networks to implement agendas. They will go anywhere to obtain assistance. Managerial MindsIntuitio n- Problem identification and solve issues in a systematic manner International Managers- National Culture is one of the most important contingency variables with more ideas Contemporary Management Concerns 1. Diversity Local and Global-With more diversity, people need to be treated fairly and equally so that issues can be solved 2. Employee- Organization Relationship Ã¢â¬â Downsizing, Restructuring engineering have been having lots of consequences of employees, lower Job satisfaction, lower morale, trust ETC. ABHOR states its important that managers can manage these issues positively 3. Focus on quality, Speed andFlexibility Ã¢â¬â Increasing competition states Organizations have to do things faster because there is a greater need for quality, speed and flexibility to maintain standard 4. Employee Recruitment and Retention- Organizations find it difficult to sustain skilled employees in their workforce. Lack of skilled labor is a big issue for organizations and its expected to get worse as baby boomers begin to retire. Recruitment process then has to be more effective to find these employees Personality and Learning Personality Ã¢â¬â Stable set of psychological characteristic that influence the way individual interact with his or her environment.It is reflected in the way people react to other people, situations and problems. Personality and Organization behavior Individuals possess stable traits or characteristic. Interactions approach, ABHOR is a function of dispositions and situation. 5 Factor model of Personality Extroversion/Neurotics/Agreeableness/Conscientiousness/Openness to Experience Evidence state that big 5 is related to Job performance. High conscientiousness is related to performance for all occupations and the best predictor of performance of all big 5. It is also related to motivation, Job satisfaction and career success Locus ofControl- Beliefs that one's behavior is controlled by external force or internal Self Monitoring- Attitude o f being aware of surrounding or not -High self monitors tend to be more involved in Jobs and to perform at a higher level. These Jobs usually includes sales, law, public relations and politics Self Esteem by surroundings. Higher Self Esteem tend to view world more optimistically. Proactive Personality- Positive affectively tends to report world as having less stress Greater Self-Efficacy Ã¢â¬â Trait that refers to individual belief that in his own capability to do well regardless of situation.They tend to have higher Job satisfaction, higher Job performance. Core Self Evaluation- Self Esteem/Self-Efficacy/Locus of control/ neurotics What is Learning? When practice or experience leads to a permanent change in behavior. We assume that learning has occurred when individual behavior change. 4 types- Practical/ Interpersonal/elementariness/Cultural Awareness 4 types -Job Specific Skills/ Knowledge/ Technical Competence Operant Learning Theory- Subjects learns to operate on environment to achieve certain consequences. Operant Leaning can be used to increase or reduce probability of behavior Increasing the Probability of BehaviorPromoting behavior is reinforcement?By which Stimuli strengthen behaviors. 2 Behaviors are Ã¢â¬â Positive reinforcement/Negative reinforcement Positive Reinforcement- Increase or maintain probability of some behavior, this sends to be pleasant stimuli Negative Reinforcement- Increase or maintains probability of some behavior by removing them in the situation. Tends to be unpleasant experience Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement 1. Confusing Rewards with Reinforces Ã¢â¬â Stating why rewards are given clearly 2. Neglecting Diversity in Preference for Reinforces -Provide the right benefits-Workaholic may not like holidays 3. Neglecting Important sources of reinforcement Ã¢â¬â Feedback is good to let people know how well or bad they have done 4. Reinforcement strategies Reducing Probability of Behavior 1. Extinction- Limitin g bad attitudes e. G- shorter breaks etc 2. Punishments Ã¢â¬â Provide punishment deduct pay etc 3. Using punishments effectively?Make sure punishment is truly aversive/punish immediately/do not reward behaviors before/after punishments 4. Do not punish desirable behavior Punishments can be effective to stop unwanted behavior and hence extinguish unwanted response.Reinforcing good behaviors is better than punishing bad behaviors Social Cognitive Theory Human behavior can be best explained through system of triadic reciprocal . Albert Bandeau social cognitive theory involves 3 parts 1. Modeling Ã¢â¬â Copying others behavior, some can learn by copying others 2. Self-Efficacy- beliefs people have on their ability to successfully perform the task. 3. Self-regulation- Regulating oneself 1. Organizational behavior modification Ã¢â¬â Systematic use of learning principles Ã¢â¬â Can use all 3, money positive feedback to improve returns 2. Employee RecognitionProgram Ã¢â¬â Publi cly recognize employees- how to recognize, type of behavior encouraged, manner of public acknowledgement, token of recognition 3. Training program Ã¢â¬â Positive effect on learning, skills and Job behaviors help to set goals when rewards sanctions used in trainees work environment 4. Career Development Ã¢â¬â Individual progress through a series of stages which involves certain plans and management component. Perception- Interpreting messages of our sense to provide order and meaning of environment. Most important perception that influence organizational behavior are the perceptions of each other Components ofPerception 1. Perceiver Ã¢â¬â Experience/motives/emotions can affect perception 2. Target Ã¢â¬â Ambiguity or lack of target leads of greater need of interpretation of information 3. Situation 1. Social Identity Theory?People form perceptions of themselves based on characteristics based on gender, religion, nationality, religion etc. 2. Model of the Perceptual Process Ã¢â¬â Initially less cues of information from the target but as time passes, it becomes clearer and easier to decipher messages 3. Basic Biases in Person A. Primary Regency Effect Ã¢â¬â Form impressions of others fairly quickly. We tend to read a lot into first impressions.B. Reliance on Central Traits- We read into others behavior based on their initial impressions C. Implicit Personality Theories- We organize our perceptions of others around the presence of certain traits or personal characteristics of others that are particular interest to us D. Projection?If we are always honest, people tend to believe we are honest E. Stereotype- Putting players into a certain category to Judge their behavior (Page 13) 1. Consistency Cues- How consistent to his goals 2. Consensus Cues- How his actions deviate from social expectations tell us more about his behavior 3. Distinctiveness Cues- How